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1 Public Campaign Funding


“The people of the United States will ordain and establish United States government under this Constitution, and the United States will fund and certify self-governance during a period set by Congress, uniform throughout the States, preceding any vote in an election, appointment or Act.

Congress will annually appropriate between one hundredth's-part and five hundredths'-parts of gross domestic product for all support and opposition concerning measures or candidates, including signature drive, and these included in other promotion. 

In public view Congress, but neither candidates nor sponsors of bills, will first allocate in a uniform amount but when repeating these will consider time, place and manner of speech, including repetition. 

A citizen may conduct such self-governance and an inhabitant may donate labor, but no tax, credit or obligation will be affected for self-governance.” ​​

Just as the most important clause
in the Constitution
is the first one,
the most important clause
in this amendment
is the first one. 

“The people of the United States
will ordain and establish
United States government
under this Constitution,”

​means that nothing can come between
the people and the Constitution 
when we are ordaining and establishing our government. 


It establishes the fundamental policy
for this aspect of law and government. 
Only the Constitution can set national policy 
that governs legislation and rulings. 
And only national policy can restrain United States action 
or the conduct of its officers.


Immediately below it in importance is Section 5's Direction clause.


Amendment XXVIII, (proposed), Section 5: ​
“The United States will fund 
the direction of exercise of its offices." 

The Direction clause tells us in general
how this policy will apply.  
It states that only the people  

have the authority to direct United States officers’ work.
This guides courts in corruption cases
and guides Congress, the President & the states 
in setting laws & internal policies.

The other clauses in Sections 1 and 5 apply this to politics.
Government includes the campaigning that surrounds 
elections, appointments and the passage of Acts.
Lobbying isn't internal to government but affects it.

Section 2 applies it to electoral process and voting.
Section 3 applies it to representation.

Image, Joseph Ellis

rooster-shaped weathervane in lavender dawn
Section 1 


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