State and US Reform Statutes



US/State
The Impartial Elections Act


US version:

"Section 1. 
To bring United States primary and general elections into compliance with the Constitution of the United States, they will be held impartially by states, will be open to all voters, will equally accommodate all candidates including independent and write-in candidates, and in no statute, rule or practice will discriminate on the basis of interest or membership in an interest group, coalition, or political party. No candidate will hold more than one ballot line. Candidates will qualify for ballot lines by petition signed by a number of eligible voters in accordance with the laws of each state. An interest group, coalition, or political party may endorse candidates but will not nominate candidates.

"Section 2. Each state's Electoral College electors for President and Vice President will be nominated during the primary congressional elections, and elected during the general congressional elections.  Each state's ballot lines for President and Vice President will be determined by nomination at a primary election held during the congressional election.

"Section 3. No third party will be used to circumvent this or any United States law."


Is this constitutional? Can Congress regulate primary or general elections for President and Vice President, or for Electoral College Electors?  


Article II, section 1 says that the President and Vice President will "be elected, as follows: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress..."

It also says, "The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States."

Can Congress tell states they can't let any interest group, coalition, or political party:


  • nominate candidates for Senator, Representative, President or Vice President
  • choose our Electoral College Electors
  • or tell states whom to nominate for Electors?


Yes; in fact, it has to! The Constitution doesn't vest any rights or powers in political parties or other organizations or interest groups. They are NOT "the people." Where the text says "the people" it always means either the people in the aggregate (as a sovereign entity), or as sovereign individuals. It never means nongovernmental entities: they have no sovereignty. It violates the Constitution to delegate any vested right or power to a nonsovereign. Section 1 brings electoral practice into compliance with what the Constitution required even before Amendment XXIV.

Qualifying by petition has been done by independent candidates for a long time. It's the most democratic way to qualify for the primary, reducing corruption dramatically. Requiring qualification by petition for all candidates makes sense but state legislatures will not do this voluntarily.

But can we do this for Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates? This is a challenging question. It's time to try your analytical skills.

When we ratified Amendment XXIV and made primaries elections, did we remove a right to nominate candidates in general from the states?

Yes, but not a constitutional right.


1. Amendment X reserves powers that haven't been enumerated to either the states (if the people delegate it to them by state constitution or law) or the people. Amendment IX reserves rights that haven't been enumerated to the people alone.


2. Nominating candidates is a self-governance right. Self-governance is inalienable. "Inalienable" means "yours whether you like it or not:" an inalienable right can't be given away by contract. We can vest it in representative government by a constitution – as long as it can be amended at our pleasure - but if not vested we can't even give it away.


3. And Article VI's Supremacy clause voids anything in any state constitution or law that conflicts with the Constitution.


What does this mean? When the text said nothing we vested it in state governments by state constitutions, but once we chose to assert the nomination right ourselves those state clauses were voided. 

Now check Section 2. Can Congress tell states how to nominate candidates for President and Vice President?

1. Congress can make or alter regulations for all elections for Senator or Representative: that's Article I, section 4. Primary elections are elections. But Article I, section 4 excludes presidential elections.

2. Amendment XXIV protects the people's right to nominate candidates for all elected United States offices by means of a primary election. But Congress are the people's representatives, not the people ourselves. We didn't vest the power to regulate presidential primaries by the Constitution at all. Our state constitutions vest this power in the states. Amendment X protects reserved state powers. Can Congress make or alter state regulations for presidential primaries by statute?

3. The popular presidential elections are unique because they are not binding: they serve only as the people's guidance for our Electors. The only place where the Constitution even mentions popular presidential elections is Amendment XXIV.

4. We have traditionally held our primary and general presidential and vice-presidential elections together with our congressional elections. This saves money, encourages participation, reduces confusion, and is convenient for the people and the state governments. Because popular presidential elections are not binding, we can't say we hold our congressional elections during our presidential elections: we hold our nonbinding presidential elections during our congressional elections. Congress can regulate or alter state regulations for congressional elections. As long as we continue to hold them together, the relevant clause is Article I, section 4, that allows Congress to make or alter regulations for congressional elections.

5. But tradition only has meaning in some areas of the law. It means nothing at all in constitutional law. We can choose to hold these elections together but state governments can regulate presidential primary and general elections by passing a statute holding them on a different day. If they do, they will be able to choose another way to nominate besides petition, keeping the potential for corruption in the process. Can we do anything about this?

Now check section 3. Can Congress tell states how to elect Electoral College electors?

1. At first glance Article II, section 1 appears to say no, it can't. It empowers Congress to determine when Electors are chosen, but it also says each state's legislature decides how to appoint them.

2. When we ratified Amendment XXIV and made Electoral College Elector an elected office, did we remove a right to nominate Electors from the states? 
Yes. We chose to nominate and elect Electors ourselves in Amendment XXIV. By doing this we did remove a constitutional right from the states. Amendment XXIV amends Article II, section 1. It revokes a right and a power by repealing the word "appoint." States lost the constitutional right to appoint Electors and the power of regulating these appointments when we asserted our citizens' right to vote in primary and general elections for them. Electors must now be nominated by primary election and elected by general election. The words, "in such Manner as the Legislature may direct," don't have to be repealed because instead of a power to direct the appointment of Electors, states now have a power to direct the elections of Electors. Amendments should be construed narrowly, not revoking any constitutional right or power that can reasonably be kept.


3. And Article II, section 1's grant to Congress of the power to determine when Electors will be appointed also remains, becoming a power to determine when they will be elected. Congress can require states to hold these elections during the congressional primary and general elections. That's a time.


4. The Electoral College elections are the binding presidential elections. If Congress requires holding Electoral College elections during congressional elections, it subjects them to the same regulations. And the nonbinding popular presidential elections would logically be held then too, subjecting them to the same regulations. The same holds true for the primaries.

Instructing Congress to require states to nominate and elect Electoral College Electors during the congressional primary and general elections  would satisfy a compelling government purpose (cutting existing corruption) and is narrowly tailored to achieve its objective (we already hold the nonbinding elections this way; it also maintains the compelling government purpose of maximizing voter participation, as well as the important though not compelling government purposes of convenience and economy).


We can also do this by state statute. No one can pretend it doesn't pass constitutional muster if the states do it. It means passing fifty separate statutes instead of one, but it can be easier to pass a state law, and it gives our state legislators an opportunity to prove to us that they are not corrupt.


The Impartial Elections Act

State version:

“Section 1. To bring this State's United States primary and general elections into compliance with the Constitution of the United States, they will be held impartially by this State, will be open to all voters, will equally accommodate all candidates including independent and write-in candidates, and in no statute, rule or practice will discriminate on the basis of interest or membership in an interest group, coalition, or political party. No candidate will hold more than one ballot line. Candidates will qualify for ballot lines by petition signed by a number of eligible voters in accordance with the laws of this State. An interest group, coalition, or political party may endorse candidates but will not nominate candidates.

"Section 2. This State's Electoral College electors for President and Vice President will be nominated during the primary congressional elections, and elected during the general congressional elections. This State's ballot lines for President and Vice President will be determined by nomination at a primary election held during the congressional election.

"Section 3. No third party will be used to circumvent this law."


The Impartial Elections Act is the single best measure available to the people to cut corruption in presidential elections without amending the Constitution.




US Only:
The Ending Citizens' United Act



"Section 1:

"Part 1. To bring the United States and every State into compliance with the Establishment of Justice clause, only text intentionally included in an opinion of the United States Supreme Court, by a Justice of that Court authorized by it to do so, will have adjudicative, precedential or other value as an opinion or constitutional interpretation of the United States Supreme Court.

“Part 2. The United States will recognize no status, right, privilege, obligation or the like established by a decision of a United States Court if that establishment used, as any part of the majority opinion, text that no judge of that Court intentionally included in that opinion.”

"Section 2:


"Part 1. No branch or level of government in the United States or its territories will confer personhood or its rights. Private property will not exercise any personhood right, power, privilege or immunity in the United States or its territories. Privileges may be granted but will not have the legal force of rights.

"Part 2.  When persons assert any right, power, privilege or immunity as a group, this will not double those persons' rights, powers, privileges or immunities.

"Part 3. Any previous such conferral or such exercise, or state or United States action based on it, is void."


No amendment to the Constitution is needed to end corporate personhood. This bill covers the two necessary issues. 

See End Citizens' United The Easy Way



US Only:
The Executive Powers Act


"Section 1. To bring executive action into compliance with Articles I, II, III, and VI, and with Amendments IX and X, unilateral Presidential action must meet these standards:

a. It preserves, protects and defends the Constitution of the United States and complies with United States law and treaties, without amending any of these or reducing their applicability or enforceability.
b. It does not impact the rights, powers, privileges or immunities of any person or grant any right, power, privilege or immunity.
c. It is subject to judicial review.
d. It is limited to the enumerated Presidential powers, and acts within their textual limitations: (1) signing or vetoing bills; (2) nominating, appointing and commissioning officers with the advice and consent of the Senate; (3) commanding the military and militias once in the actual service of the United States; (4) requiring the opinion of the principal officer in any executive department; (5) granting United States reprieves & pardons, except in cases of impeachment; (6) making treaties with the advice and consent of the Senate; (7) temporarily filling vacancies that occur while the Senate isn't in session; (8) giving State of the Union addresses; (9) recommending measures to Congress for their consideration; (10) calling Congress into emergency session or adjourning them; (11) sending and receiving ambassadors and other public ministers; (12) taking care that the laws are faithfully executed.

"Section 2.  During a national emergency, after first calling Congress into extraordinary session if it is not in session, the President may take unilateral extraconstitutional action to safeguard national unity, justice, domestic peace, defense, the general welfare, or liberty if it will resolve or stabilize an emergency until Congress convenes. Any action issued under this exception will expire when Congress convenes or when the emergency no longer exists, whichever comes first.

"Section 3.  No executive department may do anything that the President may not do. No third party will be used to circumvent this or any United States law."


While there is Preambular justification for safeguarding national unity, justice, domestic peace, defense, the general welfare, and liberty against emergencies when Congress is not in session, the text doesn't assign this power to the President. Since only the executive branch sits year-round the courts may find it an implied power, as long as it proceeds from and is limited by one of the expressed unilateral powers (calling Congress into extraordinary session). Letting the President unilaterally make policy with the force of law contradicts the text.




US only:
The Public Justice Act


"Section 1.  To bring the United States into compliance with Article III's Judicial Power clause, a United States Act, or its equivalent by any name that affects any person’s rights, powers, privileges, or immunities, will be adjudicated by the United States judiciary except when cited in suits commenced or prosecuted against a State by citizens of another State or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State, and excepting United States military or militias when subject to military discipline. No court will exist in the Executive branch. No private court will adjudicate any case arising under the United States Constitution, United States or State law, or State constitutions.

"Section 2.  To bring the United States and every State into compliance with Article III’s Judicial Powers clause and with Article I, section 5’s Secrecy clause, secrecy will be determined on a case-by-case basis by Congress. No secret court will exist in the United States or under its jurisdiction. Open investigations of crimes or torts will be publicly reported at least annually, but such reports will omit any name or identifying characteristic of any suspect or victim.    


"Section 3.  To bring the United States and every State into compliance with Amendment I's Petition clause, privacy will not be a privilege granted to government action except as would inform an enemy of strategy in a declared war, or as would compromise an open criminal investigation. With these exceptions, neither the United States nor any State will oblige any person to secrecy; the existence of such secrecy will not itself be secret; and secrecy so obliged by the United States or any State will be subject to judicial review at the request of the obliged party. No public act or private agreement without exception will keep potentially criminal or tortious conduct secret, and relevant sections of existing acts or agreements that do so are hereby void.

"Section 4.  To bring the United States into compliance with Article III’s Judicial Powers clause and with Article I, section 5’s Secrecy clause, the FISC is hereby disbanded and its records will be made public within thirty days of passage of this Act.


"Section 5. No third party will be used to circumvent this or any United States law."




US/State:
The Political Fraud, Coercion, Bribery and Lobbying Act


US version:

“Section 1.  The United States will fund the direction of exercise of its offices. To bring officer conduct into compliance with the Compensation clauses in Articles I, II and III and with Article II's High Crimes clause, no United States officer of any branch will accept or solicit any private money, present, benefit or promise. A benefit will include but not be limited to assistance with the exercise of an office.

"Section 2. Political fraud, coercion or bribery will be felonies punishable by up to ten years in prison. A United States officer or candidate who knowingly benefits from political fraud, coercion or bribery, not excluding by speech or debate on the floor, may be seated while under investigation.


"Section 3.  Lobbying will be defined as any compensated private conduct that is reasonably likely to influence a legislator or legislators regarding a bill or bills, or that is reasonably likely to be intended to exert such influence. No minimum amount of lobbying will be required to define a lobbyist. To preserve the inalienable right of self-governance and to comply with the Establishment of Justice, Freedom of Speech and Legislative Powers clauses, no third party will be required to access any member of Congress on matters relevant to a committee or subcommittee on which that member sits, regardless of state or district.  

"Section 4. Government staff are inferior officers and will be nonpartisan. A congressional staffer will convey all matters raised by the public to the member of Congress under whom they serve.

"Section 5. This Act will not repeal any existing corruption statute."



State version:

"Section 1.  This State will fund the direction of exercise of its offices. A State officer of any branch will be impeached for accepting or soliciting any private money, present, benefit or promise. A benefit will include but not be limited to assistance with the exercise of an office.

"Section 2. A State officer or candidate who knowingly benefits from political fraud, coercion or bribery, not excluding by speech or debate on the floor, will forfeit the office.  .

"Section 3. Lobbying will be defined as any compensated private conduct that is reasonably likely to influence a legislator or legislators regarding a bill or bills, or that is reasonably likely to be intended to exert such influence. No minimum amount of lobbying will be required to define a lobbyist.

"Section 4. Government staff will be nonpartisan.

"Section 5. This Act will not repeal any existing corruption statute."



US Only:
The Truth and Accuracy Act


“Section 1. All acts of government, descriptions of proposed government acts, and titles of proposed government acts will be considered expenditures of public funds for the purpose of determining fraud or other liability regarding false or misleading statements. No third party will be used to circumvent this or any United States law. 


"Section 2. No proximate victim will be required for a charge of political fraud."

 

US Only:
The Government Accountability Act



"Section 1.  To bring the United States and every State into compliance with the Preamble, an office empowered under the United States Constitution will be conducted in compliance with it. No rule or Act of the United States or of any state will aid in evading constitutional duties.

"Section 2.  To bring the United States and every State into compliance with Amendment I’s Freedom of Petition clause, no act committed, funded or authorized by the United States or any state will be anonymous or unaccountable. The accountability of an officer will not be reduced by reliance on legal counsel or on orders. Neither the United States nor any state will commit, fund or authorize conduct by any person in any place that would fail to satisfy the United States Constitution if such conduct were done in the United States by an officer empowered under the United States Constitution.


"Section 3.  To bring the United States into compliance with Amendment XXV, the standard of medical inability to discharge the powers and duties of the office of the President will rely on those used judicially to determine either (a) inability to sign a contract and be bound by its terms; or (b) inability to participate in one’s own defense. This will not prevent assignment of the powers and duties of the office to the Vice President when a compelling case exists of inability that is not medical, such as imprisonment of the President.”



US Only:
The Fraud Upon a United States Office Act


Section 1.

To bring the United States into compliance with Amendment XIV, section 3's Rebellion against the Constitution clause, fraud against a United States office is defined as:


An intentional fraud by or including any officer of the United States, directed at any office of the United States, that in fact deceives any officer of the United States.

Section 2.

Speech or debate will be excluded from this Act. Speech and debate will mean words spoken on the floor of a House of Congress except for the text of any act of government.

Section 3.

There will be no statute of limitations for prosecuting violations of this Act."




US Only:

The Rebellion against the Constitution Act


To bring the United States into compliance with Amendment XIV, section 3's Rebellion against the Constitution clause, rebellion against the Constitution will be defined as:


An intentional act by or including any person sworn or affirmed to support the United States Constitution that either

fails to carry out a constitutional mandate; or
reduces or defeats the ability of a United States office to carry out a constitutional mandate, or
reduces or defeats the ability of a United States office to carry out a Preambular purpose.




US Only:
The Public Grievance Act



"Section 1. To bring the United States into compliance with Amendment I’s Freedom of Petition clause, Congress will maintain public lists of matters raised and bills requested by constituents, updated every ninety days.

"Section 2. To bring the United States into compliance with Amendment I’s Freedom of Petition clause, the public may file complaints of potential United States officer misconduct or inability with United States, state or local law enforcement, or with any United States office. Regardless of action taken, all such complaints will be reported to the House Committee on Oversight within one hundred and eighty days, redacting names of suspect persons or entities absent House subpoena.

"Section 3.  To bring the United States into compliance with Article I, section 2's Sole Power of Impeachment clause, complaints or tips regarding potential United States officer misconduct or inability will be investigated in the House of Representatives within ninety days. No judicial or executive rule or policy will remove this power or any part of it from the House of Representatives. All United States judges, not excluding Justices of the Supreme Court, will be subject to the same rules of conduct, which will be established by Congress.


"Section 4.  Specialized investigatory offices or departments may conduct preliminary investigations concerning matters under their jurisdiction and will report potential misconduct or inability to the House Committee on Oversight. Preliminary Committee investigations will take no longer than ninety days, at which time the Committee will report its findings to the full House. The House Committee on Oversight will maintain a public list of investigations of potential United States officer misconduct or inability, redacting the names of persons or entities; and of civil and criminal investigations of potential United States officer misconduct by state or local law enforcement or any office under the Attorney General’s jurisdiction. The list will be updated every ninety days.


"Section 5.  To remain within Article I, section 5’s Expulsion clause, potential minor misconduct, to the level of disorderly conduct, by members of Congress will continue to be addressed in the relevant House.

"Section 6. Nothing in this Act will prejudice any person's right to other legal action. No third party will be used to circumvent this or any United States law."



US Only:
The Enforcement of the Franchise Act



"Section 1. 

"Part 1. When the basis of representation in Congress must be reduced due to denial or abridgment of the vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, or Representatives in Congress, the affected State's total number of Representatives in the House will be reduced for the following election in the proportion which the number of affected citizens bears to the whole number of citizens eighteen years of age in that State.

"Part 2. To prevent loss of representation, the affected State will be redistricted in fewer, larger districts that may for that term exceed the ratio in use for apportionment. In odd-numbered terms of Congress, Representatives will be seated starting from the beginning of the alphabet. In even-numbered terms of Congress, Representatives will be seated starting from the end of the alphabet.


"Section 2. 

"Part 1. When the basis of representation in a State's Legislature must be reduced due to denial or abridgment or the vote at any election for the Executive and Judicial officers of a State or the members of the Legislature thereof, the total number of representatives in the affected State's Legislature for the next election will be reduced in the proportion which the number of affected citizens bears to the whole number of citizens eighteen years of age in that State.


"Part 2. To prevent loss of representation, the affected State will be redistricted in fewer, larger districts that may for that term exceed the ratio in use for apportionment, and each State will determine a fair method for determining which Representatives will be seated.

"Part 3. Relevant elections will be audited. When the denial or abridgment has been corrected, full apportionment will be restored for the following election."




US Only:
The Officers Support the Constitution Act



"Section 1. All passed and ratified constitutional text has equal legal force unless repealed by Article V amendment.


"Section 2. An officer sworn or affirmed to support the Constitution will petition Congress or the Supreme Court to support its legal force. While such a petition is under review officers will comply with the Act or decision in question, but if constitutional text is found to have been invalidly amended any state or United States action based on it will be void."



US Only:
The Budgeting and Execution Act


"Section 1. To bring the United States into compliance with Article I, section 1’s Legislative Powers clause and with Article I, section 8’s Necessary and Proper clause, prior to making the national budget Congress will determine all United States executive and judicial budgeting needs as well as its own, will set rates of taxation and will estimate other anticipated revenues. The total anticipated annual revenue will fully cover the annual budget. Once the budget has been signed and the rates of taxation set, neither will be altered unless the United States is invaded.

"Section 2. The United States budget and rates of taxation will cover a minimum of one year at a time and will be signed no later than one year prior to the beginning of the period covered, or Congress will remain in session and all members, as well as the President, prohibited from leaving the Capitol until it has been passed and signed unless the Capitol is invaded or rendered uninhabitable.

"Section 3. To bring the United States and every State into compliance with Article I, section 1’s Legislative Powers clause, with Article I, section 8’s Necessary and Proper clause, with Article I, section 7’s Revenue clause, with Article I, section 7’s It Shall Be a Law clause, and with Article VI’s Supremacy clause, only Article I legislative process will allocate United States funds. All bills, orders, resolutions, treaties, or votes requiring allocation of funds will specify the amounts of such allocations and the time periods in which they will be spent. Allocated funds will be spent as stated, without discretion. No law but a repeal will defund an existing law. No law will defund a part of an existing law without expressly revoking that part.

"Section 4.  No text will be added to or removed from a passed bill except by repeal or by passed and signed amendment. Neither the passage nor the signing of a law will be revoked unless the law is repealed. The signing of a treaty will not be revoked by a President without the advice and consent of the Senate. Neither Congress, nor the Executive, nor any State will refuse to fund or execute a United States law or treaty unless repealed, revoked or found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.


"Section 5. No third party will be used to circumvent this or any United States law."


Several versions of a Balanced Budget Amendment have been proposed but none are complete. This bill is, and without the need for an amendment. The courts should uphold it. If they don't, all or any part of it can be proposed as an amendment to the Constitution as demonstrated below. It even includes the contingency of invasion – would we want our hands tied by a budget if the United States was invaded?



US Only:
The Separation of Powers Act



"Section 1. To bring the United States into compliance with Article I, section 1’s Legislative Powers clause and with Article I, section 8’s Necessary and Proper clause, the Article I legislative process will establish all United States executive and judicial rules. 


"Section 2. An act of United States or State government that can affect any person’s rights, powers, privileges or immunities is a law and must be passed by an elected legislature and signed by an executive.

"Section 3. Inferior executive and judicial officers appointed or hired without the advice and consent of the Senate will have no authority to judge any case or controversy.

"Section 4. To bring the United States and every State into compliance with the Preamble and with Article VI’s Supremacy clause, Amendments IX and X will not be presumed to limit the full incorporation of the Constitution. Unless the Constitution expresses that a given clause applies only to Congress or to the States, all clauses will apply to both.


"Section 5. No third party will be used to circumvent this or any United States law."




US Only:

The Judicial Duties Act


“Section 1. To bring the United States Supreme Court into compliance with Article III, section 2’s Judicial Power clause and with Amendment I’s Petition clause, it will address any petition that arises under the Constitution, United States law, or United States treaties unless expressly excepted in the Constitution.

"Section 2. The Supreme Court will take as controversies, without a proximate victim, claims that government action may have amended the Constitution without the Article V process.”

 


US/State:
The Fair Elections Act


US version:

"Section 1. To bring United States primary and general elections into compliance with the Constitution of the United States, the United States will guarantee to every State fairly contested and impartially conducted elections, monitored and audited.


"Section 2. No private person, organization or entity will govern the holding, tallying, monitoring, or auditing of elections."


State version:

“Section 1. To bring this state's United States primary and general elections into compliance with the Constitution of the United States, this state will conduct fairly contested and impartially conducted elections.


"Section 2. No private person, organization or entity will govern the holding, tallying, monitoring, or auditing of elections."



US/State:
The Campaign Duration Act


US version:

“In United States and State elections, candidacy will be announced no sooner than nine months before the general vote. Campaigning and fundraising will commence no longer than nine months before the general vote, and no longer than three months before primary votes.”

State version:

“In this State, candidacy for a state or United States office will be announced no sooner than nine months before the general vote. Campaigning and fundraising will commence no longer than nine months before the general vote, and no longer than three months before primary votes.”



US Only:
The Public & Impartial Primaries Act


52 USC 30101, sections 1 & 16 now read: 
(1) The term “election” means a general, special, primary or runoff election.
(16) The term “political party” means a political association, committee, or organization.

 

US/State:
The Right to Vote Act


US version:

"The United States and every State will enforce the right of a citizen eighteen years of age to vote, not to vote, or to abstain regarding any office in United States or State elections, or any proposal in State elections. No third party will be used to circumvent this or any United States law."


State version:


“This State will enforce the right of a citizen eighteen years of age to vote, not to vote, or to abstain regarding any office in United States or State elections, or any proposal in State elections. No third party will be used to circumvent this law."


We can require both levels of government to enforce the right to vote. A right to abstain will increase turnout, and maintaining the right to vote after criminal conviction gives us a more complete vote. While denying the right to vote because of criminal conviction is allowed in the Constitution, it is not required. Mentioning voting on proposals maintains that state right.

 

US Only:
The Public Campaign Funding Act


“Section 1.  To bring the United States into compliance with: Article I, section 2’s Apportionment and Chosen by the People clauses, Article IV, section 2’s Equal Privileges and Immunities clause, Article IV, section 4’s Guarantee clause, Amendment I’s Freedom of Speech clause, Amendment XIV’s Equal Privileges and Immunities and Equal Protection clauses, and Amendment XVII’s Two Senators clause, no private money will be used in campaigns for United States offices.

"Section 2.  To fund and certify United States campaigns, Congress will annually appropriate between one hundredth's-part and five hundredths'-parts of one percent of gross domestic product. In public view, Congress will first allocate in a uniform amount to each candidate registered with the Federal Election Commission but when repeating allocations will consider time, place and manner of speech, including repetition. Such allocations will fund all candidate speech and all candidate support and opposition, including signature drive, and these included in other promotion. Unspent campaign funds after the election will be returned to the budget. No tax, credit or obligation will be affected for provision of campaign speech. No third party will be used to circumvent this or any United States law.”



US Only:
The Fair Apportionment Act


“Section 1.  Representatives will be apportioned among the States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, using a uniform ratio to divide every State. Members of Native Tribes will be counted but not taxed. The number of Representatives will not be more than one for thirty thousand or less than one for two hundred thousand, and will not be less than one for the number of people in the least populous state.


"Section 2.  To bring apportionment into compliance with Article I, Section 2's Apportionment clause as amended by Amendment XIV, section 2, each State will apportion its Representatives publicly, impartially and fairly. Districts will represent geography and economic level. No person’s access to government will be abridged by any action of the United States or of any State."


How can we end the influence of money on access to government? Give it an official place, to lock it into that place only!



US Only:
The Balancing Power in Congress Act


“To bring the United States into compliance with Article I’s Apportionment clause, Article IV's Guarantee and Privileges and Immunities clauses, with Amendment XIV’s Apportionment, Privileges and Immunities, and Equal Protection clauses, and with Amendment XVII’s Two Senators clause, no person’s access to government will be abridged by Congress' divisions of power or of access.”


Each House of Congress has the right to make its own rules. However, because Congress is subject to the Constitution those rules must comply with it.



US Only:
The Anti-Lobbying Congressional Pension Act


"Upon leaving Congress, a Senator or Representative may choose to take the first ten years of congressional pension in one year under the following circumstances:


1. The Senator or Representative is under sixty years of age.

2. The Senator or Representative has had no legal or ethical violations and is not under investigation for a legal or ethical violation.

3. The pension will not be used to become a lobbyist.

4. The Senator or Representative no longer maintains a residence in the Washington, DC area.

5. Pension payments will resume in nine years."

 


THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



RepairRestoreSafeguard, Inc. recommends the following amendment to the Constitution to repair, restore and safeguard political process and government accountability.

Proposed Omnibus Amendment to the Constitution of the United States

"Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America assembled in Congress with two-thirds of each House in agreement, that the following Article is proposed as the Twenty-eighth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which will be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when ratified by three-fourths of the several States within two years, by conventions of delegates nominated by popular petition and elected by popular ballot. 

"Article XXVIII

"Section 1

“The United States and every State will affect any person’s rights, powers, privileges or immunities by the Article I legislative process alone. All text in this Constitution will have equal force unless repealed by Article V amendment, and will apply to both Congress and the States except where expressed. An officer sworn or affirmed to support this Constitution will enforce it by petitioning Congress or the Supreme Court. No person’s access to government will be abridged or denied by any action of the United States or of any State. No third party will be used to circumvent this Constitution,United States laws or United States treaties.


"Section 2

"Representatives will be apportioned among the States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, using a uniform ratio to divide every State. Members of Native Tribes will be counted but not taxed. The number of Representatives will not be more than one for thirty thousand or less than one for two hundred thousand, and will not be less than one for the number of people in the least populous state. Each State will apportion its Representatives publicly, impartially and fairly. Districts will represent geography and economic level.


"Section 3

"The United States will guarantee to every State fairly contested and impartially conducted primary and general elections, monitored and audited. No private person or entity will conduct granting, apportionment, districting, or the holding, tallying, monitoring, or auditing of elections. The United States and every State will enforce the right of a citizen eighteen years of age to vote, not to vote, or to abstain regarding any office in United States or State elections, or any proposal in State elections.

"Section 4

"The people of the United States will ordain and establish United States government. Congress will annually appropriate between one hundredth's-part and five hundredths'-parts of one percent of gross domestic product for all campaigns for United States office. Certification and allocation will be conducted in public view. Campaigns will commence no earlier than nine months before the general election.

"Section 5

"The United States will fund the direction of exercise of its offices. An officer will be impeached for accepting or soliciting any private money, present, benefit or promise. An officer or candidate who knowingly benefits from political fraud, coercion or bribery will forfeit the office. Titles and descriptions of Acts of the United States and of States will be true and accurate.

"Section 6

"When either House has too few Members able to attend to reach quorum, the executives of affected States will issue writs of election to fill those vacancies.  But when less than three months remain in the term or when the President declares a state of emergency, a State's legislature may empower its executive to make temporary appointments before issuing writs of election; when that office is vacant, that legislature will have power to make temporary appointments before issuing writs of election; when a State's legislature also falls below possible quorum, its executive will have power to make temporary appointments to Congress before issuing writs of election, but if that office is also vacant a write-in election will take place. When writs do not issue promptly, a State may petition its legislature for an election."

[End of Amendment. End of Resolution. May not be added to, subtracted from, or altered.]