Limiting Repeat Grants  

by  Time, Place or Manner


Importantly, the factor used in limiting funding beyond the minimum

will be the manner of speech conduct,

not its content

(relevant times and places are covered in the section's first sentence; see Time Periods Before Votes).


Speech conduct is speech that uses action, and all conduct has manner.

Statutes, Supreme Court decisions, experiment and public debate have developed applied speech doctrine

by categorizing kinds of speech and manners of speech conduct

to clarify and distinguish Amendment I's protections (see Applied Speech Doctrine). 


  • Pure speech includes nothing but speech itself:

          speaking, writing, tapping out Morse code on a park bench, and so on.

          It costs nothing but must comply with the requirements. 

  • Strategies and techniques of marketing and advertising are commercial speech conduct,

           including nonspeech conduct, used to create speech.

           Psychological studies and surveys are educational conduct, including nonspeech conduct,

           used to create speech.

  • Programming, broadcasting, delivery, to a lesser extent publishing

          are sometimes commercial or cultural speech conduct that includes some nonspeech conduct,

          and sometimes just nonspeech conduct, used to reach the public. 

  • Repetition is a manner.

          More speech is not always better speech, and speech in quantity

          has been shown to have a coercive power that owes nothing to any persuasive strength of its content.

          Advertising uses repetition to help ‘create a market’ for products.

          Grants will be repeated less when speech is repeated more.



large reddish plaid