Stages of Congressional Passage

for an Amendment


       1.    Introduction of Joint Resolution (with Constitutional Authority Statement, below)

Senate: any; or We the People petition
House: any; or We the People petition

       2.   Floor vote; assignment to Constitution subcommittees

Senate: full 
House: full

      3.  Subcommittee hearings; subcommittee vote

Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution, 115th Congress

Senators Cruz (TX), Blumenthal (CT), Cornyn (TX), Durbin (IL), Crapo (ID), Franken (MN), Sasse (NE), Coons (DE), Graham (SC)

House Subcommittee on the Constitution and Civil Justice, 115th Congress

Reps. Franks (R-AZ), Cohen (D-TN), King (R-IA), Nadler (D-NY), Gohmert (R-TX), Deutch (D-FL), Jordan (R-OH)

      4.   Judiciary Committee hearings; committee vote

Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 115th Congress
Sens. Grassley (R-IA), Feinstein (D-CA), Hatch (R-UT), Leahy (D-VY), Graham (R-SC), Durbin (D-IL), Cornyn (R-TX), Whitehouse (D-RI), Lee (R-UT), Klobucher (D-MN), Cruz (R-TX), Franken (D-MN), Sasse (R-NE), Coons (D-DE), Flake (R-AZ), Blumenthal (D-CT), Crapo (R-ID), Hirono (D-HI), Kennedy (R-LA) 

House Judiciary Committee, 115th Congress

Reps. Goodlatte (R-VA), Conyers (D-MI), Sensenbrenner (R-WI), Nadler (D-NY), Smith (R-TX), Lofgren (D-CA), Chabot (R-OH), Jackson Lee (D-TX), Issa (R-CA), Cohen (D-TN), King (R-IA), Johnson (D-GA), Franks (R-AZ), Chu (D-CA), Gohmert (R-TX), Deutch (D-FL), Jordan (R-OH), Gutierrez (D-IL), Poe (R-TX), Bass (D-CA), Chaffetz (R-UT), Richmond (D-LA), Marino (R-PA), DelBene (D-WA), Gowdy (R-SC), Jeffries (D-NY), Labrador (R-ID), Cicilline (D-RI), Farenthold (R-TX), Peters (D-CA), Collins (R-GA), DeSantis (R-FL), Walters (R-CA), Buck (R-CO), Ratcliffe (R-TX), Trott (R-MI), Bishop (R-MI)

     5.    Floor Debate

Senate: full 
House: full

    6.   Floor vote

Senate and House: full; may be joint session

Constitutional Authority Statement

When this amendment is officially introduced a document entitled, “Constitutional Authority Statement” will accompany it. That document will resemble the following but will be made at that time with the assistance of the Clerk of Congress to ensure proper procedure. No such document is required until the date of introduction.

In accordance with House Rule XII, clause 7(c) this document states the power granted by the Constitution to enact this joint resolution. Congress has the power to enact this legislation pursuant to the following:

The Preamble: "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America." 

Article V: "The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate."

Article I, Section 8: "The Congress shall [...] make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States."