Internal Government Speech


Article II, Section 2:

“[The President] may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer

in each of the executive Departments,

upon any Subject relating to the duties of their respective Offices,”

Article II, Section 3:

“[The President] shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union,”  

The opinion of any principal executive officer on any subject relating to the duties of that office

is government information the President can require. Government information can be any information,

including authoritative opinion, relevant to the running of the country.

The President in turn provides information about the country to Congress.

This wouldn’t concern us here except that it’s become a tradition for these State of the Union speeches to be made

to the public as well as Congress.

In a democracy presenting government information internally isn’t that different from presenting it to the public.

And Congress isn’t the only source of government information the public may need.