Definitions


direction of exercise of an office:either the way an officer acts regarding a particular thing (such as a bill, regulation, case, request, etc.) or the way an officer tends to respond to various people, requirements or requests

institution:Only a unit of government such as a department, office or agency is public for this amendment’s purpose and eligible to govern the public functions in Section 2. Public hospitals, colleges, and so on are public institutions in the sense that they were created by law and are publicly funded, but they’re not units of government and aren’t eligible to govern the public functions of granting, apportionment, districting or the holding, tallying, monitoring or auditing of elections. They are private for this amendment’s purpose. This of course doesn't prevent institutions (or anyone) from sponsoring registration drives, or from hosting registration or voting conducted by local, state or federal government. Political parties sometimes call themselves institutions, but they’re not units of government or even public institutions but private political organizations or clubs, and may not govern these public functions.

intergovernmental: The United Nations is intergovernmental. For this amendment’s purpose, all else is either a government or private. WHO, the World Bank and so on are private organizations. Public functions that may not be governed by private persons, organizations or entities may only be performed by government or by the United Nations and may not be delegated by them to any private actor. No other person, organization or entity can govern these functions, even if it calls itself intergovernmental.

private:a person, organization or entity that is not the government, the people in the aggregate or the United Nations. (At least one NGO has recently relabeled itself an “intergovernmental organization” in an attempt to get around the designation “private”. They are private.) Political parties are also private.


restoring text: The best-known restorative amendment is XXI, which repeals most of Amendment XVIII, restoring the alcohol trade to almost its original Constitutional status. Amendments XIV and XXIV reverse caselaw drift from Article I, Sections 4 and 8 and Article IV, Sections 1, 2, and 4.


Amendment XV is partially restorative because when Amendment XIII abolished slavery and especially after Amendment XIV defined terms for national citizenship all former slaves born in the United States met the Constitution's requirement for citizenship and automatically gained the vote. The history of suffrage for free black people in the states was already a convoluted one but the Constitution had never prohibited it.


Amendment XIX could also be considered restorative. When the Constitution was ratified, one state didn’t require male gender for the vote so the Constitution, compromising, tacitly accepted female suffrage. After New Jersey backed down and repealed female suffrage more conservative times prevailed. Amendment XIV first used the word "male" to qualify voters. It didn't apply to holding office, however, and so in 1916 Congress gained a female member before women gained the vote - or before it was restored.

self-governance:the conduct of ordaining and establishing government by the people; speech and conduct for the purpose of governance

speech or debate on the floor:speech or debate by a member of Congress or a state legislature in a space it uses for speech and debate

the people of the United States; citizen; inhabitant: These are all terms the law defines as being limited to natural persons (in contrast, "resident" isn't limited to natural persons).